Oral surgery refers to any type of surgical procedure involving the teeth, tongue, lips, mouth glands, oral tissues, and jaw structure. Many types of oral surgeries are performed by regular dentists, however surgical procedures requiring in-depth knowledge of particular oral presentations are performed by specialists, i.e., by endodontists, periodontists, prosthodontists, and oral surgeons. Below are some of the most common oral surgical procedures.
Tooth extraction, also known as exodontia, is the most common type of tooth surgery and involves the surgical removal of a tooth or teeth. Types of teeth extracted include impacted, decayed, damaged, and supernumerary (extra) teeth. Apicectomy, also known as root end surgery, is another type of tooth surgery that is done to remove a decayed root tip and replace it with a biocompatible root filling. Tooth surgeries are usually performed by general dentists or oral surgeons.
Two of the most common gum surgeries are gingivectomy and gum grafting. Gingivectomy is the surgical removal of diseased, infected, and loose gum tissue to eliminate periodontal pockets between the teeth. It is also done as a cosmetic surgery to reshape the gum line for a more aesthetic smile (called gum contouring in this case). Gum grafting is done to replace gum tissue that has been lost due to gum recession or injury. Most gum surgeries are performed by a periodontist (gum specialist).
Jaw bone surgeries
Jaw surgeries, also known as orthognathic surgeries, include bone grafting and dento-facial osteotomies. During bone grafting lost or deteriorated jaw bone is restored with grafted bone tissue. This is usually done to prepare the jaw for the insertion of a dental implant or other prosthetic. Dento-facial osteotomies are invasive surgical procedures done to reposition, widen, or reshape the jaw to correct bite problems or teeth crowding. Jaw bone surgeries are most commonly performed by oral surgeons and periodontists.
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